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100 Archaeological Discoveries That Changed the World by National Geographic

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  ¼Þ¬¸Ø°Ý¥ÃިưݑI: ŽjãÅ‚‚̍l ŒÃŠw‚Ì”­Œ©ÍÞ½Ä100   ‰pDKŽÐ: ¢ŠEŽj‚ð•Ï‚¦‚½ í‚¢ƒxƒXƒg100 
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¢ŠE‚ð‹Á‚©‚¹‚½lŒÃŠw‚Ì”­Œ©100

Unearthing 100 Treasures of the Past

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œ 370–œ`5–œ”N‘O; l—ނ̃‹[ƒc
œ 3.7 mya - 50,000 ya; Roots of our family tree @




mya=(million year ago)
E ƒ‰ƒGƒgƒŠ‚Ì‘«Õ‰»Î 370 –œ”N‘O E Laetoli Footprints 3.7 Million years ago
E ƒ‹[ƒV[ 320 –œ”N‘O E Lucy 3.2 Million years ago
E ƒIƒ‹ƒhƒoƒCŒk’J 240–œ`140–œ”N‘O E Olduvai Gorge 2.4 to 1.4 Million years ago
E ƒhƒ}ƒjƒV 180–œ`175–œ”N‘O E Dmanisi 1.8 to 1.75 Million years ago
E ƒzƒ‚EƒiƒŒƒfƒB‰»Î 33–œ5000`
23–œ6000”N‘O
E Homo Naledi 335,000-236,000 years ago
E ƒfƒjƒ\ƒl‰»Î 25–œ`5–œ”N‘O E Denisovans 25,0000-50,000
 years ago
E ’´¬Œ^‚ÌŒ´lAƒtƒ[ƒŒƒXl‰»Î 10–œ`5–œ”N‘O E Smallest Relatives 100,000-50,000
 years ago
E ƒVƒƒƒjƒ_[ƒ‹“´ŒAAƒlƒAƒ“ƒfƒ‹ƒ^[ƒ‹l‰»Î 7–œ5000”N‘O E Shanidar Cave 75,000 years ago






œ 5–œ”N`‘O3000”N; •¶‰»‚Ì–é–¾‚¯
œ 50,000 ya - 3000 B.C.;The dawn of culture






E ƒAƒ{ƒŠƒWƒjŠâŠG 3–œ”N‘O‚©‚»‚êˆÈ‘O E Rock Art At least 30,000
years ago
E ƒVƒ‡[‚ׂƃ‰ƒXƒR[“´ŒA•Ç‰æ 3–œ6000”N‘O‚Æ2–œ”N‘O E Chauvet and Lascaux 36,000 and 20,000 years ago
E ƒ‚ƒ“ƒeƒxƒ‹ƒfZ‹Õ 1–œ8500”N‘O E Monte Verde 18,500 years ago
E ƒMƒ‡ƒxƒNƒŠEƒe‚؈âÕ ‘O9600”N E Gobekli Tepe 9600 BC
E ƒEƒVƒN@ƒVƒ…ƒ[ƒ‹l“sŽsˆâÕ@ ‘O4500”N E First City Uruk 4500 BC
E ƒAƒCƒXƒ}ƒ“(ƒGƒbƒcƒB) ‘O3300”N E Otzi 3300 BC
E ƒXƒg[ƒ“‚Öƒ“ƒW ‘O3000”N E Stonehenge 3000 BC
E ƒTƒnƒ‰‚ÌŠâŠG ‘O1–œ”N`‘O4000”N E Masterpieces of the Sahara 10,000-4000 BC






œ ‘O3000`‘O1500”N; ŽÐ‰ïŠî”Ղ̍\’z
œ 3000-1500 B.C.; The foundations of society






E ŒÃ‘ãƒGƒWƒvƒgA¶æі„‘’‹VŽ®‚̍­Õ ‘O3000”N E Ancient Egypt 3000 BC
E ƒEƒ‹‚̉¤•æ ‘O2600`‘O2300”N E UR's Royal Tombs 2600-2300 BC
E ƒ‚ƒwƒ“ƒWƒ‡ƒ_ƒ‚ƃnƒ‰ƒbƒp[ˆâÕŒQ ‘O2500`‘O1900”N E Indus Valley 2500-1900 BC
E ƒMƒU‚̃vƒ‰ƒ~ƒbƒh‚ł̐lX‚̐¶ŠˆÕ ‘O2550`‘O2470”N E Pyramids at Giza 2550-1900 BC
E ƒRƒbƒNƒpƒmƒ€ƒfƒBˆâÕ ‘O2000”N`‘O1500”N E Khok Phanom Di 2000-1500 BC
E ƒNƒmƒbƒNƒXˆâÕ@ü•¶Žš‚ª‚܂ꂽ”S“y” ‘O1800`‘O1200”N E Knossos's Cryptic Tablets 1800-1200 BC
E ƒnƒ“ƒ€ƒ‰ƒr–@“T ‘O1792`‘O1750”N E Law Code of Hannurabi 1792-1750 BC
E ƒAƒNƒƒeƒBƒŠˆâÕ ‘O1600”N E Ruins of Akrotiri 1600 BC






œ ‘O1500`‘O1000”N; Œð—¬‚·‚镶‰»
œ 1500-1000 B.C.; Converging Worlds






E ƒnƒbƒgƒDƒVƒƒ‚Ì•¶‘ ‘O1650`‘O1200”N E Hattusha's Written Records 1650-1200 BC
E ƒEƒ‹ƒuƒ‹ƒ“’¾–v‘D ‘O1320”N E The Uluburun Shipwreck 1320 BC
E ƒAƒ}ƒ‹ƒi•¶‘ ‘O1390`‘O1336”N E Letters to the Pharaohs (Clay Tablets) 1390-1336 BC
E ƒ~ƒP[ƒl‚̉©‹à‚̍à•ó ‘O1700`‘O1100”N E Mycenae, More Than Myth 1700-1100 BC
E ƒcƒ^ƒ“ƒJ[ƒƒ“‚Ì•æ ‘O1322”N E Tomb of a Teenage Pharaoh (King Tut) 1322 BC
E “`à‚Ì“sŽsƒgƒƒC‚̈âÕ ‘O1750`‘O1180”N E The Legend of Troy 1750-1180 BC
E Ÿu‰¤’©ˆâÕAbœ•¶Žš‰»Î ‘O1600`‘O1045”N E Rediscovering the Shang Dynasty 1600-1045 BC
E ‰¢BÅŒÃ‚̐íêÕ(ƒhƒCƒc) ‘O1250”N E Armies Clash at Causeway (Oldest Battlefield) 1250 BC
E ƒ}ƒXƒgƒtƒ@[ƒ€ÌÎê‚̐æŽjŽž‘ã‚̏Z‹Õ ‘O1000`‘O800”N E A Settlement Left in Haste (Prehistoric Houses) 1000-800 BC






œ ‘O1000`‘O500”N; ŒÃ‘ã‚Ì•”‘°‚Ɖ¤’©
œ 1000-500 B.C.; Ancient tribes and dynasties






E ƒ‰ƒrƒ^l‚Ì•æ ‘O1000`‘O750”N E Beyond the Blue Horizon (Lapita Cemetery) 1000-750 BC
E VƒAƒbƒVƒŠƒA‚Ì‹{“a ‘O912`‘O609”N E Neo-Assyrian Palace 912-609 BC
E ƒ_ƒrƒf‰¤‚ɂ‚¢‚Ă̔蕶 ‘O800”N‘㔼‚Î E King David Mid-800s BC
E ‹Îl“ª‘œ ‘O1200`‘O400”N E Colossal Stone Heads 1200-400 BC
E ŒÃ‘ãƒNƒVƒ…‰¤‘‚̈âÕ ‘O730`‘O656”N E Kushite Kings 730-656 BC
E ƒGƒgƒ‹ƒŠƒA‚̃lƒNƒƒ|ƒŠƒX ‘O900`‘O100”N E Etruscan Necropolises 900-100 BC
E ƒCƒVƒ…ƒ^ƒ‹–å ‘O575”N E Ishtar Gate 575 BC
E ƒPƒ‹ƒglŽñ’·‰»Î(ƒhƒCƒc) ‘O530”N E Celtic Chieftain 530 BC
E ƒyƒ‹ƒZƒ|ƒŠƒX ‘O518”N E Persepolis 518 BC






œ ‘O500`‘O200”N; H ‚ÌŽž‘ã
œ 500-200 B.C.; An age of artisans






E ƒXƒLƒ^ƒC‚Ì•æ ‘O900`‘O200”N E Scythian 900-200 BC
E ƒlƒuƒ‰EƒfƒBƒXƒN ”N‘ã•sÚ E Nebra Sky Dosl Unknown Date
E ƒŠƒA[ƒ`ƒ…‚̐íŽm‘œ ‘O450”N E Riace Warriors 450 BC
E ƒpƒ‹ƒeƒmƒ“_“a ‘O447”N E Parthenon 447 BC
E ƒgƒ‰ƒLƒA‚̉©‹à×H ‘O400”N E Thracian Goldworking 400 BC
E ƒmƒN‚Ì‘fÄ‚«‘œ ‘O900`‘O1”N E Nok Terra-Cotta 900-1 BC
E ƒxƒ‹ƒMƒiƒm‚Ì•­•æ ‘O350`‘O320”N E Tombs of Vergina 350-320 BC
E ŒÃ‘ãƒGƒWƒvƒg‚̐…–v“sŽs ‘O800`Œã800”N E Sunken Cities 800 BC-AD 800
E •º”n˜Ú ‘O210”N E Terra-Cotta Warriors 210 BC
E ƒAƒ“ƒeƒBƒLƒeƒ‰“‡‚̌ÑãƒMƒŠƒVƒƒ“V•¶ŒvŽZ‹@ ‘O100”N E Complex Star Clock 100 BC






œ ‘O200`Œã75”N; ‹VŽ®‚Ə@‹³
œ 200-A.D.75; Rituals and religion






E ƒƒ[ƒbƒ^Î ‘O196”N E Rosetta Stone 196 BC
E –k‰¢‚̏À’n‚Ń~ƒCƒ‰‰»‚µ‚½ˆâ‘Ì ‘O800`Œã400”N E Mummified Bodies 800 BC-AD 400
E ƒ}ƒ„•¶–¾‚Ì•Ç‰æ ‘O100”N‚ÆŒã790”N E Maya Murals 100 BC-AD 790
E Ž€ŠC•¶‘ ‘O300`Œã100”N E Dead Sea Scrolls 300 BC-AD100
E ƒeƒBƒŠƒ„Eƒe‚Ø‚Ì•æŒQ Œã50”N E Tombs of Tillya Tepe AD 50
E ŒÃ‘ã“sŽsƒJƒCƒTƒŠƒAEƒ}ƒŠƒeƒBƒA ‘O22”N E Caesarea Maritima 22 BC
E ƒiƒXƒJ‚Ì’nãŠG ‘O500”N`Œã700”N E Nasca Lines 500 BC-AD 700
E »”™‚Ì—vÇƒ}ƒTƒ_ 72`73”N E Standoff at Masada AD72-73






œ 75”N`600”N; •æ‚Ɛ_“a
œ A.D.75-600; Tombs and temles






E »”™‚Ì“sŽsƒyƒgƒ‰ ‘O300`Œã700”N E Petra 300 BC-AD700
E ƒ|ƒ“ƒyƒC‚ƃwƒ‹ƒNƒ‰ƒlƒEƒ€ 79”N E Pompeii and Herculaneum 79
E ƒ‚ƒ`ƒF 250”N E Moche 250
E “sŽsˆâÕƒRƒpƒ“ ‘O1000`Œã900”N E Copan 1000 BC-AD 900
E ƒeƒIƒeƒBƒƒJƒ“ ‘O100`Œã650”N E Teotihuacan 100 BC-AD 650
E ƒLƒŠƒXƒg‚Ì•æ 345”N E Tomb of Jesus Christ 345
E ƒƒXEƒAƒCƒiƒN•§‹³ˆâÕ 200`800”N E Mes Aynak 200-800
E ƒtƒRƒbƒN‚̃‚ƒUƒCƒN‰æ 400”N‘㏉‚ß E Mosaics of Huqoq Eary 400s
E ƒAƒWƒƒƒ“ƒ^[ÎŒAŒQ ‘O200`Œã650”N E Caves of Ajanta 200 BC-AD 650
E ƒTƒbƒgƒ“Eƒt[ 600”N‘㏉‚ß E Sutton Hoo Eary 600s






œ 600`1000”N; ‹Á‚«‚Æ“ä
œ A.D.600-1000; Surprises and mysteries






E ‰©‹à•¶‰»(ƒRƒNƒŒ‰©‹àˆâÕ) 700`1000”N E Golden Chiefs 700-1000
E ƒI[ƒZƒxƒŠ‘D 820”N E Oseberg Ship 820
E ƒAƒ“ƒfƒX‚Ì”é•ó(ƒƒŠ•¶‰»ˆâÕ ) 800`1000”N E Andean Treasures 800-1000
E ƒyƒgƒƒOƒŠƒX 300`1300”N E Petroglyph Canyon 300-1300
E ƒƒfƒBƒiEƒAƒT[ƒ‰ 936”N E Medina Azahara 936
E ƒ‰ƒ“ƒXEƒIEƒƒh[ˆâÕ 1000”N E L'anse Aux Meadows 1000
E ƒWƒFƒ“ƒlEƒWƒFƒmˆâÕ Å·Šú800`1000”N E Jenne-Jeno Peak 800-1000
E ƒC[ƒXƒ^[“‡ƒ‚ƒAƒC‘œ 900`1600”N E Easter Island's 900-1600






œ 1000`1200”N; ‘s‘å‚ÈŒš‘¢•¨‚ðŽc‚·
œ A.D. 1000-1200; Great builders






E ƒNƒ[ƒ‹’鍑Žñ“sƒAƒ“ƒR[ƒ‹ 802`1431”N E Angkor Wat 802-1431
E ƒ}ƒ„•¶–¾ˆâÕƒ`ƒ`ƒFƒ“EƒCƒbƒcƒ@ 800`1200”N E Chichen Itza 800-1200
E Ž¸‚í‚ꂽu‰Ž_‚Ì“sŽsv 1000`1400”N E Lost City of the Monkey God 1000-1400
E ƒJƒzƒLƒA•­‹uŒQ 1050`1200”N E Cahokia Mounds 1050-1200
E ŠâŒAZ‹ŒQ(ƒRƒƒ‰ƒhBƒ‚ƒ“ƒeƒYƒ}ŒS) 1200`1300”N E Cliff Dwellings 1200-1300
E ƒOƒŒ[ƒgEƒWƒ“ƒoƒuƒG 1100`1450”N E Great Zimbabwe 1100-1450
E ƒXƒƒqƒŠ•¶‰»‚Ì“sŽs‘‰ÆŒQ 800`1500”N E Swahili City-Stats 800-1500






œ 1200`1600”N; Žx”zŽÒ‚ÆŽs–¯
œ A.D.1200-1600; Sovereigns and citizens






E ƒƒ“ƒhƒ“Žs–¯‚̈⍜ 1200`1600”N E London's Bones 1200-1600
E ƒmƒuƒSƒƒh 1000`1400”N E Novgorod 1000-1400
E ŠC‚É’¾‚ñ‚¾ƒtƒrƒ‰ƒCEƒnƒ“‚ÌŠÍ‘à 1281”N E The drowned fleet of Kublai Khan 1281
E ƒAƒXƒeƒJ‚̐_“aƒeƒ“ƒvƒEƒ}ƒˆ[ƒ‹ 1325`1521”N E Templo Mayor 1325-1521
E ƒ}ƒ`ƒ…ƒsƒ`ƒ… 1400”N‘㠁E Machu Picchu 1400s
E ƒgƒ“ƒuƒNƒgƒD 1100`1600”N E Timbuktu 1100-1600
E “€Œ‹‚µ‚½ƒ~ƒCƒ‰AƒAƒCƒXƒƒCƒfƒ“(•X‚̉³—) 1500”N E Frozen Mummies 1500
E ƒƒAƒŠ[Eƒ[ƒY† 1545”N E The shipwreck of the Mary Rose 1545






œ 1600”N`Œ»Ý; ‘‚«Š·‚¦‚ç‚ê‚é—ðŽj
œ A.D.1600-present; A changing world order






E ƒAƒ}ƒ]ƒ“–§—с@W—Ž–Ô‚Æ‹VŽ®—p‚̃WƒIƒOƒŠƒt(’nãŠG) 1250`1500”N E Amazon reinforest 1250-1500
E A–¯’nƒWƒF[ƒ€ƒYƒ^ƒEƒ“‚̈╨‚Ɛlœ 1607”N E Artifacts and human remains at Jamestown 1607
E ƒAƒ‰ƒXƒJæZ–¯‚Ì—ðŽj 1600”N‘㠁E Indigenous History 1600s
E ƒ|[ƒgEƒƒCƒ„ƒ‹ 1692”N E Port Royal 1692
E ƒNƒƒeƒBƒ‹ƒ_† 1860”N E Clotilda 1860
E ö…’øH.L.ƒnƒ“ƒŠ[† 1864”N E H.L.Hunley 1864
E ƒ^ƒCƒ^ƒjƒbƒN† 1912”N E Titanic 1912






  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
¦Ž‘—¿F "¢ŠE‚ð‹Á‚©‚¹‚½lŒÃŠw‚Ì”­Œ©100" ƒiƒVƒ‡ƒiƒ‹ ƒWƒIƒOƒ‰ƒtƒBƒbƒN “ú–{”Å National Geographic 2021”N11ŒŽ†
¦ Ž‘—¿F"UNEARTHING 100 TREASURES OF THE PAST" National Geographic November 2021 Issue
¦
ƒiƒVƒ‡ƒiƒ‹ ƒWƒIƒOƒ‰ƒtƒBƒbƒN‚Ì“–Ž‘—¿‚̏oŠŒ³‚Í
‘Ð"Lost Cities, Ancient Tombs: 100 Discoveries that Changed the World."
by National Geographic (Author) ,Ann Williams (Editor), National Geographic 2021(Publisher) ‚̂悤‚Å‚·B







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